The Death of Yeshua

Who was responsible for killing Yeshua / Jesus?
What actually happened that night when Yeshua was arrested, tried and convicted; then later executed?
Think about Yeshua's last hours
Think about how much transpired in such a short period of time.

From the Passover Seder, the "Last Supper", to the moment of Yeshua's death, many events took place. How was all this accomplished?

  • Who Actually Killed Yeshua?
    Who really was responsible?

    So many people blame the Jews or blame the Italian Roman soldiers or Pilate.  They all relate to the same core information, that which is stated in the four Gospels.  This information is limited but still holds some very pertinent details.  Something most people leave out of the Passion of Christ is the timing of all that took place.  Here are some core details from the Gospels. 

    Yeshua and the disciples celebrate the Passover

  • So, what happened that night?
    What are all the events which took place that fateful evening which lasted until three o'clock the next afternoon?

    They go to the Mount of Olives to pray.

    Yeshua is arrested

    He is taken to the home of Anas, the father in law of Caiaphas.

    From there He was taken to the home of Caiaphas for another quick trial.

    Here there is a meeting with members of the Sanhedrin, a hearing about Jesus

    He is condemned by the Sanhedrin

    From there He is removed to the residence of Pontius Pilate

    Pilate interrogates Yeshua

    Pilate sends Yeshua to Herod

    Yeshua is returned to Pilate

    Yeshua is offered to the Jews along with Bar Abbas.

    The people choose Bar Abbas

    Yeshua is sentenced to death.

    Yeshua is taken away and scourged

    He is then given His cross and led away to the site of the Crucifixion, “Golgotha”.

    Here Yeshua is executed, nailed to the Cross.

    Has anyone really ever thought about the time frame this all takes place in? The Passover is celebrated in the evening. After this they leave and walk to the Mount of Olives, the Garden of Gethsemane. Here they talk a bit, Yeshua then prays during which time the Disciples fall asleep a few times. Each time Yeshua was away from them praying. This brings them into the early hours of the night, long after the good citizens of Jerusalem were asleep, indoors for the Passover.

    Then Yeshua is arrested and led to the home of Anas then to the home of Caiaphas, not by car but again walked there. They then have a meeting which took more time for the group to question and argue and all that is written take place along with what was left out for expediency. He is then taken to Pontius Pilate and here is tried before the Governor. Yeshua is then handed over to Herod for a short time and returned to Pilate where He is offered to the people present. After which He is condemned to death, scourged and walked away to be executed.

    Yeshua was crucified at the third hour. This means He was nailed to the cross at nine o’clock in the morning. If they finished the Passover Seder early, they may have arrived at the Garden of Gethsemane by nine o’clock that evening. So the entire scenario of actions from arriving at the Garden to the moment of Crucifixion had only twelve hours to take place. This includes His being moved from place to place by foot; hearings convened, questions and answers, arguments pro and con, moved again, then two more times and tried by the people and condemned.

    This means the time the people had to gather and call for Bar Abbas was very short, not nearly enough time for the “people” of Jerusalem to gather for what is commonly seen as a mass or crowd of people calling for Bar Abbas. It means this public trial would have taken place suddenly in the morning about seven to seven thirty, allowing for enough time for the scourging and being led away to Golgotha. This was a kangaroo court situation manipulated by the Sanhedrin. When the facts are brought into a timeline, does anyone really think there were any followers, believers, non-believers of sufficient numbers to have a true “trial”? The only people we know which were following this closely were the members of the Sanhedrin. The regular people were just getting their day started; getting up and beginning another day. They would not have had the time to get word of any public trial. The Sanhedrin would surely not have wanted the people to know what was happening. So too the Roman Governor Pilate would not have wanted a crowd present to cause any kind of uprising.

    Those present were the Sanhedrin. They are the ones who voted for Bar Abbas, the people were not present. By the time the people knew what was happening Yeshua was already on His way to Golgotha. There was little time to say no let alone stop it.

    Yeshua was arrested in the middle of the night. The disciples fled and hid. The people were in their homes; they had finished their Passover celebrations and were ostensibly in bed. Yeshua was then moved from Caiaphas’ house to Pilate’s residence, to Herod’s residence and back to Pilate’s. The people in Jerusalem were completely unaware what was going on. The Disciples had fled and were in hiding, not running around like Paul Revere alerting the countryside.

    Both the Sanhedrin and the Roman Governor had the same basic thought, do NOT let the people know what is happening, otherwise those who felt Jesus was a Prophet or more could potentially cause a scene. To the Sanhedrin, this would thwart their plans and goals to have Jesus killed. To the Roman Governor Pontius Pilate, a riot could ensue and the tenuous peace could suddenly erupt into violence. As a result the populace of Jerusalem and Judea had no idea what was happening to Jesus during these short twelve hours. When He was presented to the “people” to decide, this was roughly between 6:30 and 7:30 am, the populace of Jerusalem and Judea were just getting up.

    There was no radio or TV news to hear the latest developments. There was no internet or telephones to mass the people and let them know to gather around the Roman Governor’s residence; a place they would not normally want to gather around. By the time the people found out what was happening Yeshua was already on his way to Golgotha to be crucified. When the public was addressed and the “people” called for Bar Abbas, the only people who knew what was happening and were available and there were the members of the Sanhedrin and their cohorts. They by default were moving and maneuvering Yeshua from place to place to find a way to have Him executed. In the end, Pilate turned the tables back on them and required the decision from they themselves. It was the Sanhedrin who called for His execution and the release of Bar Abbas.

    The Bible states the decision to crucify Yeshua was given to the “multitude”. The word used in the New Testament for “multitude” is from the Greek "Okhlos”.

    Strong’s 3793 defines the word in this way: “Okh los;from a derivative of 2192 (meaning a vehicle); a throng (as borne along); by implication the “rabble”; by extension a “class” of people; figurative a riot;- company, multitude, number (of people), people, press.”

    It is used many times throughout the New Testament, always referring to a number of people. The problem is the number varies greatly, from dozens to thousands. For examples on point we look to the following:

    Matthew 13:2 “the whole multitude stood on the shore”;

    Mt 13:24 “Yeshua sent the multitude away”;

    Mt 14:5 (referring to Herod fearing the desire to kill John the Baptist) “put him to death for fear of the multitude”.

    Mt 14:14 “went forth, and saw a great multitude”

    The various uses of the word stretch the gamut of the Strong’s definition. At times there are associated words to expand on the word such as “a great multitude” or a “very great multitude”. There is no strict association of numbers with the word itself. When Yeshua is arrested it is written (Mt 26:47) “And while He was still speaking behold, Judas, one of the twelve, with a “great multitude” with swords and clubs came from the chief priests and elders of the people.” This alone should show the word does not inherently imply “thousands” or even “hundreds” of people, but as in Strong’s it could mean a class of people, a “rabble”, a “company” or a “number” of people etc.

    I am contending the “multitude” which condemned Yeshua was not the people of Jerusalem or Judea at large and was the core of this “great multitude” which arrested Yeshua (Mt 26:47), persuaded and controlled by the Sanhedrin (Mt 27:20). The “great multitude” which arrested Jesus was comprised of the Chief Priests, elders and scribes along with the Temple guards. When the choice between Jesus and Barabbas came up, the number had decreased into just a “multitude”. Those who believed in Yeshua and those whose conscience bothered them had dropped out of the original “great multitude” present hours earlier. By the time the masses of people of Jerusalem and Judea were aware of what was happening, the events were reaching their conclusion on the way to the Cross.

    So in answer to the age old question, “no” the Jews did not kill Yeshua, nor did the Romans it was the members of the Sanhedrin who were the ones responsible. They called for His execution; they chose the terrorist Bar Abbas ahead of their Messiah. The very timeline alone shows it is impossible for the people of Jerusalem and Judah at large to have been present. The Passover requires them to have stayed in their homes.

  • A suggested timeline
    Here are the events organized into a suggested basic timeline.

    5:30 - 8:45pm Yeshua and the disciples celebrate the Passover. This would obviously be the typical and very traditional Passover Seder. The celebration would take a number of hours as they went through each step and element of the meal which is very steeped in tradition and ritual. This however is not a strict and regimented process. Though there are specific points and aspects, the flow is fluid and can start and stop with discussion and explanation intermingled with the core points which are always done. A conservative timeline of 3-4 hours is allotted to this one since Yeshua did add in new commentary, giving the aspects of the New Covenant on top of the Old.

    8:45 - 9:00pm They go to the Mount of Olives to pray. Yeshua and the Disciples finish their Passover celebration by singing a traditional hymn, (the Hallel, psalms 113-118) after which they leave for the Mount of Olives. This trip would take at least ten to fifteen minutes, possibly more depending on where in the city they were celebrating the Passover. From the Gospels it can be seen they talked along the way, lending to the possibility it took at least these ten minutes if not the fifteen or more.

    Mt 26:30-35 And when they had sung a hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives. Yeshua Predicts Peter’s Denial Then Yeshua said to them, “All of you will be made to stumble because of Me this night, for it is written: ‘I will strike the Shepherd, and the sheep of the flock will be scattered. “But after I have been raised, I will go before you to Galilee.” Peter answered and said to Him, “Even if all are made to stumble because of You, I will never be made to stumble.” Yeshua said to him, “Assuredly, I say to you that this night, before the rooster crows, you will deny Me three times.” Peter said to Him, “Even if I have to die with You, I will not deny You!” And so said all the disciples.

    Mk 14:26-31 And when they had sung a hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives. Yeshua Predicts Peter’s Denial Then Yeshua said to them, “All of you will be made to stumble because of Me this night,for it is written: ‘I will strike the Shepherd, and the sheep will be scattered.’ “But after I have been raised, I will go before you to Galilee.” Peter said to Him, “Even if all are made to stumble, yet I will not be.” Yeshua said to him, “Assuredly, I say to you that today, even this night, before the rooster crows twice, you will deny Me three times.” But he spoke more vehemently, “If I have to die with You, I will not deny You!”And they all said likewise.

    Lk 22:39 Coming out, He went to the Mount of Olives, as He was accustomed, and His disciples also followed Him.

    Jn 18:1,2 When Yeshua had spoken these words, He went out with His disciples over the Brook Kidron, where there was a garden, which He and His disciples entered. And Judas, who betrayed Him, also knew the place; for Yeshua often met there with His disciples.

    9:00pm – 3:00am-am Yeshua prays while the Disciples sleep. This takes some time as Yeshua leaves the Disciples to go and pray, returning three times only to find them sleeping each time. Yeshua was not one to pray for a short time and be done with it as most people are today. Each time He left them it was long enough for them to fall into a deep sound sleep. Yeshua was an intense “pray-er”; the time He used to pray each interval was long enough for the Disciples to fall into a sound sleep. Yeshua had left them to pray three times, each time He returned to find them asleep. A total time of six hours is allotted for this to take place. This combines His praying, coming and going and waking them enough for them to hear Him speak to them.

    Mt 26:36 Then Yeshua came with them to a place called Gethsemane, and said to the disciples, “Sit here while I go and pray over there.”And He took with Him Peter and the two sons of Zebedee, and He began to be sorrowful and deeply distressed. Then He said to them, “My soul is exceedingly sorrowful, even to death. Stay here and watch with Me.” He went a little farther and fell on His face, and prayed, saying, “O My Father, if it is possible, let this cup pass from Me; nevertheless, not as I will, but as You will.” Then He came to the disciples and found them sleeping, and said to Peter, “What! Could you not watch with Me one hour? “Watch and pray, lest you enter into temptation. The spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak.” Again, a second time, He went away and prayed, saying, “O My Father, if this cup cannot pass away from Me unless I drink it, Your will be done.” And He came and found them asleep again, for their eyes were heavy. So He left them, went away again, and prayed the third time, saying the same words. Then He came to His disciples and said to them, “Are you still sleeping and resting? Behold, the hour is at hand, and the Son of Man is being betrayed into the hands of sinners.“Rise, let us be going. See, My betrayer is at hand.”

    Mk 14:32-42 Then they came to a place which was named Gethsemane; and He said to His disciples, “Sit here while I pray.” And He took Peter, James, and John with Him, and He began to be troubled and deeply distressed. Then He said to them, “My soul is exceedingly sorrowful, even to death. Stay here and watch.” He went a little farther, and fell on the ground, and prayed that if it were possible, the hour might pass from Him. And He said, “Abba, Father, all things are possible for You. Take this cup away from Me; nevertheless, not what I will, but what You will.” Then He came and found them sleeping, and said to Peter, “Simon, are you sleeping? Could you not watch one hour? “Watch and pray, lest you enter into temptation. The spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak.” Again He went away and prayed, and spoke the same words. And when He returned, He found them asleep again, for their eyes were heavy; and they did not know what to answer Him. Then He came the third time and said to them, “Are you still sleeping and resting? It is enough! The hour has come; behold, the Son of Man is being betrayed into the hands of sinners. “Rise, let us be going. See, My betrayer is at hand.”

    Lk 22:40-46. When He came to the place, He said to them, “Pray that you may not enter into temptation.” And He was withdrawn from them about a stone’s throw, and He knelt down and prayed, saying, “Father, if it is Your will, take this cup away from Me; nevertheless not My will, but Yours, be done.” Then an angel appeared to Him from heaven, strengthening Him. And being in agony, He prayed more earnestly. Then His sweat became like great drops of blood falling down to the ground. When He rose up from prayer, and had come to His disciples, He found them sleeping from sorrow. Then He said to them, “Why do you sleep? Rise and pray, lest you enter into temptation.”

    3:00 – 3:15am Yeshua is arrested. As the Gospels describe, Judas returns with a company of troops from the Temple along with some of the Chief Priests and the elders. The word used in the English is “multitude” which again, in the Greek is “Okhlos” which can also mean a company or number of people, not necessarily a massive number of people in the thousands. The timing for this is only fifteen minutes. It would not have taken very long, Yeshua was not in hiding and was waiting for these events to take place. The variable is the time it took for Peter to cut off the ear of the guard and Yeshua to heal it. Other than that, Yeshua went along willingly almost immediately when they arrived and Judas identified Him.

    MT 26:47-57 And while He was still speaking, behold, Judas, one of the twelve, with a great multitude with swords and clubs, came from the chief priests and elders of the people. Now His betrayer had given them a sign, saying, “Whomever I kiss, He is the One; seize Him.”Immediately he went up to Yeshua and said, “Greetings, Rabbi!” and kissed Him. But Yeshua said to him, “Friend, why have you come?” Then they came and laid hands on Yeshua and took Him. And suddenly, one of those who were with Yeshua stretched out his hand and drew his sword, struck the servant of the high priest, and cut off his ear. But Yeshua said to him, “Put your sword in its place, for all who take the sword will perish by the sword. “Or do you think that I cannot now pray to My Father, and He will provide Me with more than twelve legions of angels? “How then could the Scriptures be fulfilled, that it must happen thus?” In that hour Yeshua said to the multitudes, “Have you come out, as against a robber, with swords and clubs to take Me? I sat daily with you, teaching in the temple, and you did not seize Me.“But all this was done that the Scriptures of the prophets might be fulfilled.” Then all the disciples forsook Him and fled. And those who had laid hold of Yeshua led Him away to Caiaphas the high priest, where the scribes and the elders were assembled.

    Mk 14:43 - 53And immediately, while He was still speaking, Judas, one of the twelve, with a great multitude with swords and clubs, came from the chief priests and the scribes and the elders. Now His betrayer had given them a signal, saying, “Whomever I kiss, He is the One; seize Him and lead Him away safely.” As soon as he had come, immediately he went up to Him and said to Him, “Rabbi, Rabbi!” and kissed Him. Then they laid their hands on Him and took Him. And one of those who stood by drew his sword and struck the servant of the high priest, and cut off his ear. Then Yeshua answered and said to them, “Have you come out, as against a robber, with swords and clubs to take Me? “I was daily with you in the temple teaching, and you did not seize Me. But the Scriptures must be fulfilled.” Then they all forsook Him and fled. Now a certain young man followed Him, having a linen cloth thrown around his naked body. And the young men laid hold of him, and he left the linen cloth and fled from them naked. Yeshua Faces the Sanhedrin And they led Yeshua away to the high priest; and with him were assembled all the chief priests, the elders, and the scribes.

    LK 22:47-54 And while He was still speaking, behold, a multitude; and he who was called Judas, one of the twelve, went before them and drew near to Yeshua to kiss Him. But Yeshua said to him, “Judas, are you betraying the Son of Man with a kiss?” When those around Him saw what was going to happen, they said to Him, “Lord, shall we strike with the sword?” And one of them struck the servant of the high priest and cut off his right ear. But Yeshua answered and said, “Permit even this.” And He touched his ear and healed him. Then Yeshua said to the chief priests, captains of the temple, and the elders who had come to Him, “Have you come out, as against a robber, with swords and clubs? “When I was with you daily in the temple, you did not try to seize Me. But this is your hour, and the power of darkness.”Peter Denies Yeshua, and Weeps Bitterly Having arrested Him, they led Him and brought Him into the high priest’s house. But Peter followed at a distance.

    Jn 18: Then Judas, having received a detachment of troops, and officers from the chief priests and Pharisees, came there with lanterns, torches, and weapons. Yeshua therefore, knowing all things that would come upon Him, went forward and said to them, “Whom are you seeking?” They answered Him, “Yeshua of Nazareth.” Yeshua said to them, “I am He.” And Judas, who betrayed Him, also stood with them. Now when He said to them, “I am He,” they drew back and fell to the ground. Then He asked them again, “Whom are you seeking?” And they said, “Yeshua of Nazareth.” Yeshua answered, “I have told you that I am He. Therefore, if you seek Me, let these go their way,” that the saying might be fulfilled which He spoke, “Of those whom You gave Me I have lost none.” Then Simon Peter, having a sword, drew it and struck the high priest’s servant, and cut off his right ear. The servant’s name was Malchus. So Yeshua said to Peter, “Put your sword into the sheath. Shall I not drink the cup which My Father has given Me?” Before the High Priest Then the detachment of troops and the captain and the officers of the Jews arrested Yeshua and bound Him.

    3:15 – 5:00am He is taken to the home of Caiaphas; here there is a meeting of the Sanhedrin, they try and they condemn Yeshua. This meeting would have taken at least two hours. With so many Jewish leaders, some for and some against Yeshua, the length of the hearing would not have been short. They would have had multiple opinions. There were witnesses and rebuttals as well as defense commentaries and a myriad of arguments both for and against not just Yeshua but what to do with and about him. Culminating this hearing is the direct question if Yeshua is the Messiah, the Son of God, to which He replies “I Am”. This ostensibly ends the hearing and seals His fate in their minds. He to them was guilty of blasphemy and must be punished with the death penalty. The problem was they were unable to administer such a punishment, only the Roman Governor could do so. The timing of this hearing almost seems to short for what appears to have taken place. Though this is possible, the extra time could be drawn from the time in Gethsemane.

    MT 26:56-75And those who had laid hold of Yeshua led Him away to Caiaphas the high priest, where the scribes and the elders were assembled. But Peter followed Him at a distance to the high priest’s courtyard. And he went in and sat with the servants to see the end.Now the chief priests, the elders, and all the council sought false testimony against Yeshua to put Him to death, but found none. Even though many false witnesses came forward, they found none. But at last two false witnesses came forward and said, “This fellow said, ‘I am able to destroy the temple of God and to build it in three days.’ ”And the high priest arose and said to Him, “Do You answer nothing? What is it these men testify against You?” But Yeshua kept silent. And the high priest answered and said to Him, “I put You under oath by the living God: Tell us if You are the Christ, the Son of God!” Yeshua said to him, “It is as you said.

    Nevertheless, I say to you, hereafter you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of the Power, and coming on the clouds of heaven.” Then the high priest tore his clothes, saying, “He has spoken blasphemy! What further need do we have of witnesses? Look, now you have heard His blasphemy! “What do you think?” They answered and said, “He is deserving of death.” Then they spat in His face and beat Him; and others struck Him with the palms of their hands, saying, “Prophesy to us, Christ! Who is the one who struck You?” Peter Denies Yeshua, and Weeps Bitterly Now Peter sat outside in the courtyard. And a servant girl came to him, saying, “You also were with Yeshua of Galilee.” But he denied it before them all, saying, “I do not know what you are saying.” And when he had gone out to the gateway, another girl saw him and said to those who were there, “This fellow also was with Yeshua of Nazareth.” But again he denied with an oath, “I do not know the Man!” And a little later those who stood by came up and said to Peter, “Surely you also are one of them, for your speech betrays you.” Then he began to curse and swear, saying, “I do not know the Man!”Immediately a rooster crowed. And Peter remembered the word of Yeshua who had said to him, “Before the rooster crows, you will deny Me three times.” So he went out and wept bitterly.

    Mk 14:54-72 And they led Yeshua away to the high priest; and with him were assembled all the chief priests, the elders, and the scribes.But Peter followed Him at a distance, right into the courtyard of the high priest. And he sat with the servants and warmed himself at the fire. Now the chief priests and all the council sought testimony against Yeshua to put Him to death, but found none. For many bore false witness against Him, but their testimonies did not agree. Then some rose up and bore false witness against Him, saying, “We heard Him say, ‘I will destroy this temple made with hands, and within three days I will build another made without hands.’ ” But not even then did their testimony agree. And the high priest stood up in the midst and asked Yeshua, saying, “Do You answer nothing? What is it these men testify against You?” But He kept silent and answered nothing. Again the high priest asked Him, saying to Him, “Are You the Christ, the Son of the Blessed?” Yeshua said, “I am. And you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of the Power, and coming with the clouds of heaven.” Then the high priest tore his clothes and said, “What further need do we have of witnesses? “You have heard the blasphemy! What do you think?” And they all condemned Him to be deserving of death. Then some began to spit on Him, and to blindfold Him, and to beat Him, and to say to Him, “Prophesy!” And the officers struck Him with the palms of their hands. Now as Peter was below in the courtyard, one of the servant girls of the high priest came. And when she saw Peter warming himself, she looked at him and said, “You also were with Yeshua of Nazareth.” But he denied it, saying, “I neither know nor understand what you are saying.” And he went out on the porch, and a rooster crowed. And the servant girl saw him again, and began to say to those who stood by, “This is one of them.”But he denied it again. And a little later those who stood by said to Peter again, “Surely you are one of them; for you are a Galilean, and your speech shows it.” Then he began to curse and swear, “I do not know this Man of whom you speak!” A second time the rooster crowed. Then Peter called to mind the word that Yeshua had said to him, “Before the rooster crows twice, you will deny Me three times.” And when he thought about it, he wept.

    Luke 22:54-71 Having arrested Him, they led Him and brought Him into the high priest’s house. But Peter followed at a distance. Now when they had kindled a fire in the midst of the courtyard and sat down together, Peter sat among them. And a certain servant girl, seeing him as he sat by the fire, looked intently at him and said, “This man was also with Him.” But he denied Him, saying, “Woman, I do not know Him.” And after a little while another saw him and said, “You also are of them.” But Peter said, “Man, I am not!” Then after about an hour had passed, another confidently affirmed, saying, “Surely this fellow also was with Him, for he is a Galilean.” But Peter said, “Man, I do not know what you are saying!” Immediately, while he was still speaking, the rooster crowed. And the Lord turned and looked at Peter. Then Peter remembered the word of the Lord, how He had said to him, “Before the rooster crows, you will deny Me three times.” So Peter went out and wept bitterly. Now the men who held Yeshua mocked Him and beat Him. And having blindfolded Him, they struck Him on the face and asked Him, saying, “Prophesy! Who is the one who struck You?” And many other things they blasphemously spoke against Him. Yeshua Faces the Sanhedrin As soon as it was day, the elders of the people, both chief priests and scribes, came together and led Him into their council, saying, “If You are the Christ, tell us.” But He said to them, “If I tell you, you will by no means believe. “And if I also ask you, you will by no means answer Me or let Me go. “Hereafter the Son of Man will sit on the right hand of the power of God.” Then they all said, “Are You then the Son of God?” So He said to them, “You rightly say that I am.” And they said, “What further testimony do we need? For we have heard it ourselves from His own mouth.”

    John 18:12-27 Then the detachment of troops and the captain and the officers of the Jews arrested Yeshua and bound Him. And they led Him away to Annas first, for he was the father–in–law of Caiaphas who was high priest that year. Now it was Caiaphas who advised the Jews that it was expedient that one man should die for the people.Peter Denies Yeshua And Simon Peter followed Yeshua, and so did another disciple. Now that disciple was known to the high priest, and went with Yeshua into the courtyard of the high priest. But Peter stood at the door outside. Then the other disciple, who was known to the high priest, went out and spoke to her who kept the door, and brought Peter in. Then the servant girl who kept the door said to Peter, “You are not also one of this Man’s disciples, are you?” He said, “I am not.” Now the servants and officers who had made a fire of coals stood there, for it was cold, and they warmed themselves. And Peter stood with them and warmed himself. Yeshua Questioned by the High Priest The high priest then asked Yeshua about His disciples and His doctrine. Yeshua answered him, “I spoke openly to the world. I always taught in synagogues and in the temple, where the Jews always meet,and in secret I have said nothing. “Why do you ask Me? Ask those who have heard Me what I said to them. Indeed they know what I said.” And when He had said these things, one of the officers who stood by struck Yeshua with the palm of his hand, saying, “Do You answer the high priest like that?” Yeshua answered him, “If I have spoken evil, bear witness of the evil; but if well, why do you strike Me?” Then Annas sent Him bound to Caiaphas the high priest. Peter Denies Twice More Now Simon Peter stood and warmed himself. Therefore they said to him, “You are not also one of His disciples, are you?” He denied it and said, “I am not!” One of the servants of the high priest, a relative of him whose ear Peter cut off, said, “Did I not see you in the garden with Him?” Peter then denied again; and immediately a rooster crowed.

    5:00 – 5:15am From there He is removed to the residence of Pontius Pilate where he interrogates Yeshua. Pilate was in Jerusalem and had been attending a celebration of his own. According to the Gospel accounts it was first thing in the morning when they came to Pilate’s residence, the Praetorium. Pilate would not have been too thrilled to see this group of people in an agitated state so early in the morning. He also would not have wanted it to look like he was bowing to their whims by showing up immediately upon their request; he would have taken his time. The comment in Matthew of “when morning came” implies this was first thing in the morning, about five, five thirty. Because of the rest of the events which must take place before nine, the time of this is kept to between five and five fifteen.

    Mt 27:1-14When morning came, all the chief priests and elders of the people plotted against Yeshua to put Him to death. And when they had bound Him, they led Him away and delivered Him to Pontius Pilate the governor. Judas Hangs Himself Then Judas, His betrayer, seeing that He had been condemned, was remorseful and brought back the thirty pieces of silver to the chief priests and elders, saying, “I have sinned by betraying innocent blood.” And they said, “What is that to us? You see to it!” Then he threw down the pieces of silver in the temple and departed, and went and hanged himself. But the chief priests took the silver pieces and said, “It is not lawful to put them into the treasury, because they are the price of blood.” And they consulted together and bought with them the potter’s field, to bury strangers in. Therefore that field has been called the Field of Blood to this day. Then was fulfilled what was spoken by Jeremiah the prophet, saying, “And they took the thirty pieces of silver, the value of Him who was priced, whom they of the children of Israel priced,“and gave them for the potter’s field, as the Lord directed me. Yeshua Faces Pilate Now Yeshua stood before the governor. And the governor asked Him, saying, “Are You the King of the Jews?” Yeshua said to him, “It is as you say.” And while He was being accused by the chief priests and elders, He answered nothing. Then Pilate said to Him, “Do You not hear how many things they testify against You?” But He answered him not one word, so that the governor marveled greatly.

    Mark 15:1-5 Immediately, in the morning, the chief priests held a consultation with the elders and scribes and the whole council; and they bound Yeshua, led Him away, and delivered Him to Pilate. Then Pilate asked Him, “Are You the King of the Jews?” He answered and said to him, “It is as you say.” And the chief priests accused Him of many things, but He answered nothing. Then Pilate asked Him again, saying, “Do You answer nothing? See how many things they testify against You!” But Yeshua still answered nothing, so that Pilate marveled.

    Luke 23:1-7 Then the whole multitude of them arose and led Him to Pilate. And they began to accuse Him, saying, “We found this fellow perverting the nation, and forbidding to pay taxes to Caesar, saying that He Himself is Christ, a King.” Then Pilate asked Him, saying, “Are You the King of the Jews?” He answered him and said, “It is as you say.” So Pilate said to the chief priests and the crowd, “I find no fault in this Man.” But they were the more fierce, saying, “He stirs up the people, teaching throughout all Judea, beginning from Galilee to this place.” Yeshua Faces Herod When Pilate heard of Galilee, he asked if the Man were a Galilean. And as soon as he knew that He belonged to Herod’s jurisdiction, he sent Him to Herod, who was also in Jerusalem at that time.

    John 18:28-38 Then they led Yeshua from Caiaphas to the Praetorium, and it was early morning. But they themselves did not go into the Praetorium, lest they should be defiled, but that they might eat the Passover. Pilate then went out to them and said, “What accusation do you bring against this Man?” They answered and said to him, “If He were not an evildoer, we would not have delivered Him up to you.” Then Pilate said to them, “You take Him and judge Him according to your law.” Therefore the Jews said to him, “It is not lawful for us to put anyone to death,” that the saying of Yeshua might be fulfilled which He spoke, signifying by what death He would die. Then Pilate entered the Praetorium again, called Yeshua, and said to Him, “Are You the King of the Jews?” Yeshua answered him, “Are you speaking for yourself about this, or did others tell you this concerning Me?” Pilate answered, “Am I a Jew? Your own nation and the chief priests have delivered You to me. What have You done?” Yeshua answered, “My kingdom is not of this world. If My kingdom were of this world, My servants would fight, so that I should not be delivered to the Jews; but now My kingdom is not from here.” Pilate therefore said to Him, “Are You a king then?” Yeshua answered, “You say rightly that I am a king. For this cause I was born, and for this cause I have come into the world, that I should bear witness to the truth. Everyone who is of the truth hears My voice.” Pilate said to Him, “What is truth?” And when he had said this, he went out again to the Jews, and said to them, “I find no fault in Him at all.

    5:30 – 5:45am Pilate sends Yeshua to Herod where Herod speaks to Yeshua. As the Gospels show, Pilate, a shrewd politician, knew this was not a situation he should be involved in. Pilate would have by now heard from his own men the character of Yeshua and how He had helped the Roman soldiers as well as the people of Judea and Galilee. Pilate seeing a way out, tried to pawn this off onto Herod, placing one King of the Jews against the other. Hoping Herod in his not so shrewd political methods may accomplish what the Sanhedrin wanted. Herod had already killed John the Baptist, so there was the strong possibility he would do the same here. This is the first attempt Pilate made to get this off his plate so to speak.

    Herod, also a Jew would have been in Jerusalem for the Passover. He was an elitist and they had to show off their piety as best they could. He also had to show he was especially religious after having cut the head off John the Baptist.

    Since Yeshua was being charged with claiming to be King of the Jews, sending Him to Herod was almost cynical. Putting one king the Romans had no respect for or of, with another. The reason though was to get this obvious powder keg out of official Roman jurisdiction and hands and into the local politics. This would refocus any retribution anger against Herod and not the Romans. The guards would then have led Yeshua over to Herod’s Jerusalem residence in the city. Herod receives him with malice, making fun of Him. After being unimpressed Herod then sends Yeshua back to Pilate for him to deal with, throwing it back into the hands of the Romans and making it an official Roman problem. Herod was hated enough for what he did to John the Baptist and did not need this laid on him as well.

    Luke 23:6-12 When Pilate heard of Galilee, he asked if the Man were a Galilean. And as soon as he knew that He belonged to Herod’s jurisdiction, he sent Him to Herod, who was also in Jerusalem at that time. Now when Herod saw Yeshua, he was exceedingly glad; for he had desired for a long time to see Him, because he had heard many things about Him, and he hoped to see some miracle done by Him.Then he questioned Him with many words, but He answered him nothing. And the chief priests and scribes stood and vehemently accused Him. Then Herod, with his men of war, treated Him with contempt and mocked Him, arrayed Him in a gorgeous robe, and sent Him back to Pilate. That very day Pilate and Herod became friends with each other, for previously they had been at enmity with each other.

    6:15 – 6:30am After Herod receives Yeshua, he was not as stupid as Pilate had hoped. He was aware of what would happen if he executed another person who the people thought to be a prophet of God. So after making fun of Yeshua he (Yeshua) is returned to Pilate to settle the dispute with the Jewish Temple leadership.

    Luke 23:11-12 Then Herod, with his men of war, treated Him with contempt and mocked Him, arrayed Him in a gorgeous robe, and sent Him back to Pilate. That very day Pilate and Herod became friends with each other, for previously they had been at enmity with each other.

    6:30 – 7:30am Yeshua returns to the Praetorium where Pilate deliberates what to do, speaking again to Yeshua, Yeshua is offered to the Jews along with Bar Abbas, they people choose Bar Abbas. So why did Pilate offer Barabbas? It was another attempt to wash his hands of the situation. His wife has had dreams about Yeshua, and Pilate knew what killing a holy man does, it creates a martyr figure for people to rally around for rebellion. Pilate was also a pagan so had the concepts of spiritualism and superstition ingrained in his mindset. The comments Yeshua and His accusers made, along with the dreams his wife had, he was definitely apprehensive of dealing inappropriately with Yeshua. There were just too many variables and unanswered questions and controversy surrounding the man Yeshua. Another point to consider is the offering up of Barabbas in particular. His criminal record included murder and rebellion, basically a terrorist of the period. His name was also “Yeshua” or “Yeshua”, but instead of “Yeshua bar Yosef” it was “Yeshua bar Abbas”. Pilate was giving them a stark difference in men. Pilate was probably convinced in his own mind they would never want to release a man who was a well known and convicted murderer. He wanted to give them a choice of extremes. When they chose Barabbas, he knew he couldn’t get out of the situation adequately so the best he could do was tell them to do what they want to him and washed his hands of the entire matter; at least symbolically. If there is fault or guilt on Pilate, it is for God to actually and adequately know and decide.

    The news would not have been spread around the city as the Disciples fled into hiding. They were not rebellious organizers, mounting an insurrection was not what they knew how to do if they even wanted to. Everyone was scared of the response of the Roman Governor and his armies. There was no hero riding through the city shouting “The Romans are coming, the Romans are coming!”. So if the people of Jerusalem were not the ones who called for Yeshua to be crucified, who were?

    The only ones present through the entire evening. From the moment they left the house of Caiaphas members of the Sanhedrin who were against Yeshua lead the movement of Him from point to point. Pilate was probably hoping something would happen to undue their nefarious scheme to do away the man Yeshua. But there was a higher power involved and things had to play out the way they did. So Pilate puts the question to those present at the time, 6-6:30 am, the only ones who were still awake from the night before, the members of the Sanhedrin who were against Him from the beginning and wanted His death. With a last ditch effort to avoid creating a religious martyr, Pilate offers a compromise, he’d allow them to chose one prisoner to be released. He presents Yeshua Bar Yosef and Yeshua Bar Abbas to them, one a righteous man the other a convicted murderer.

    I find the reaction of Pilate interesting. From the Gospel account it can be seen Pilate realized he was in the middle of something beyond the normal problems of Judea and governing. He appears to realize Yeshua is a unique person. When he hears Yeshua’ response to his question about the ability to crucify or not, he knew Yeshua was something special. The attitude of Pilate begins when he hears the claim by the chief priests Yeshua claimed to be the Son of God. Pilate knew right there this was a situation he did not want to be involved in.

    Whether he believed in God is not the point as he believed in “gods”; and did not want to be involved with any god in a negative way, whether a “Jewish” or “Roman” god. Then when Yeshua states “you could have no power over me unless it was given from above” Pilate realized Yeshua believed he was a “Godsend”. The Gospels state Pilate knew the accusations were a result of jealousy by the Chief Priests et al. This meant it was strictly a religious argument and he (Pilate) knew he did not want any part of an internal religious problem. Pilate repeatedly states he found no fault in Yeshua.

    MT 27:12-19 And while He was being accused by the chief priests and elders, He answered nothing. Then Pilate said to Him, “Do You not hear how many things they testify against You?” But He answered him not one word, so that the governor marveled greatly. Now at the feast the governor was accustomed to releasing to the multitude one prisoner whom they wished. And at that time they had a notorious prisoner called Barabbas, Therefore, when they had gathered together, Pilate said to them, “Whom do you want me to release to you? Barabbas, or Yeshua who is called Christ?” For he knew that they had handed Him over because of envy. While he was sitting on the judgment seat, his wife sent to him, saying, “Have nothing to do with that just Man, for I have suffered many things today in a dream because of Him.”

    Mark 15:3-14And the chief priests accused Him of many things, but He answered nothing. Then Pilate asked Him again, saying, “Do You answer nothing? See how many things they testify against You!” But Yeshua still answered nothing, so that Pilate marveled. Taking the Place of Barabbas Now at the feast he was accustomed to releasing one prisoner to them, whomever they requested. And there was one named Barabbas, who was chained with his fellow rebels; they had committed murder in the rebellion. Then the multitude, crying aloud, began to ask him to do just as he had always done for them. But Pilate answered them, saying, “Do you want me to release to you the King of the Jews?” For he knew that the chief priests had handed Him over because of envy. But the chief priests stirred up the crowd, so that he should rather release Barabbas to them. Pilate answered and said to them again, “What then do you want me to do with Him whom you call the King of the Jews?” So they cried out again, “Crucify Him!”Then Pilate said to them, “Why, what evil has He done?”But they cried out all the more, “Crucify Him!”

    Luke 23:13-24 Then Pilate, when he had called together the chief priests, the rulers, and the people, said to them, “You have brought this Man to me, as one who misleads the people. And indeed, having examined Him in your presence, I have found no fault in this Man concerning those things of which you accuse Him; “no, neither did Herod, for I sent you back to him; and indeed nothing deserving of death has been done by Him. “I will therefore chastise Him and release Him” (for it was necessary for him to release one to them at the feast). And they all cried out at once, saying, “Away with this Man, and release to us Barabbas”— who had been thrown into prison for a certain rebellion made in the city, and for murder. Pilate, therefore, wishing to release Yeshua, again called out to them. But they shouted, saying, “Crucify Him, crucify Him!” Then he said to them the third time, “Why, what evil has He done? I have found no reason for death in Him. I will therefore chastise Him and let Him go.” But they were insistent, demanding with loud voices that He be crucified. And the voices of these men and of the chief priests prevailed. So Pilate gave sentence that it should be as they requested. And he released to them the one they requested, who for rebellion and murder had been thrown into prison; but he delivered Yeshua to their will.

    John 18:39-40 Pilate said to Him, “What is truth?” And when he had said this, he went out again to the Jews, and said to them, “I find no fault in Him at all. Taking the Place of Barabbas “But you have a custom that I should release someone to you at the Passover. Do you therefore want me to release to you the King of the Jews?” Then they all cried again, saying, “Not this Man, but Barabbas!” Now Barabbas was a robber.

    7:30am Yeshua is sentenced to death. The Gospels show Pilate tried to get out of this any way he could. It was not a normal case of one person against another or one of theft or murder. This was aan internal religious problem of the Sanhedrin and one of their own people. The problem for Pilate was compounded with the fact the Chief Priest was installed by Rome. The money or tax flow went through the Temple itself. By controlling the Temple and its leadership Rome controlled the taxes and people through a single medium. Although the Chief Priest was their puppet, the Sanhedrin can still cause trouble by stirring up the people. As a result Pilate was walking a fine line. As a result he gives in to them, turning Yeshua over to them to deal with themselves; placing the Roman soldiers at their disposal to carry out their plans. By turning Him over to them, it was the death penalty, putting the blood of Yeshua, whom Pilate considered innocent, on their hands.

    The news would not have been spread around the city as the Disciples fled into hiding. They were not rebellious organizers, mounting an insurrection was not what they knew how to do if they even wanted to. Everyone was scared of the response of the Roman Governor and his armies. There was no hero riding through the city shouting “The Romans are coming, the Romans are coming!”. So if the people of Jerusalem were not the ones who called for Yeshua to be crucified, who were?

    The only ones present through the entire evening, from the moment they left the house of Caiaphas were members of the Sanhedrin who were against Yeshua, they lead the movement of Him from point to point. Pilate was probably hoping something would happen to undue their scheme to do away the man Yeshua. But there was a higher power involved and things had to play out the way they did. So Pilate puts the question to the only ones who were still awake from the night before, the members of the Sanhedrin who were against Him from the beginning and wanted His death. With a last ditch effort to avoid creating a religious martyr, Pilate offers a compromise, he’d allow them to chose one prisoner to be released. He presents Yeshua Bar Yosef and Yeshua Bar Abbas to them, one a righteous man the other a convicted murderer.

    Mt 27:23-26 Then the governor said, “Why, what evil has He done?” But they cried out all the more, saying, “Let Him be crucified!” When Pilate saw that he could not prevail at all, but rather that a tumult was rising, he took water and washed his hands before the multitude, saying, “I am innocent of the blood of this just Person. You see to it.”And all the people answered and said, “His blood be on us and on our children.” Then he released Barabbas to them; and when he had scourged Yeshua, he delivered Him to be crucified

    Mark 15:15 So Pilate, wanting to gratify the crowd, released Barabbas to them; and he delivered Yeshua, after he had scourged Him, to be crucified.

    Luke 23:23-24 But they were insistent, demanding with loud voices that He be crucified. And the voices of these men and of the chief priests prevailed. So Pilate gave sentence that it should be as they requested. And he released to them the one they requested, who for rebellion and murder had been thrown into prison; but he delivered Yeshua to their will.

    John 18:39-40 “But you have a custom that I should release someone to you at the Passover. Do you therefore want me to release to you the King of the Jews?” Then they all cried again, saying, “Not this Man, but Barabbas!” Now Barabbas was a robber.

    7:30 – 8:30am Yeshua is taken away and scourged. This portion is well demonstrated in Mel Gibson’s film “The Passion”. The brutality of the torture Yeshua suffered is almost incomprehensible. This could have lasted only an hour but must have seemed like an eternity to Yeshua at the time. From the mocking, the unending beating to almost death, the time it took would easily have been anywhere from forty five minutes to an hour and a half.

    Mt 27:26-31 Then he released Barabbas to them; and when he had scourged Yeshua, he delivered Him to be crucified. The Soldiers Mock Yeshua Then the soldiers of the governor took Yeshua into the Praetorium and gathered the whole garrison around Him. And they stripped Him and put a scarlet robe on Him. When they had twisted a crown of thorns, they put it on His head, and a reed in His right hand. And they bowed the knee before Him and mocked Him, saying, “Hail, King of the Jews!” Then they spat on Him, and took the reed and struck Him on the head. And when they had mocked Him, they took the robe off Him, put His own clothes on Him, and led Him away to be crucified.

    Mark 15:15-20 So Pilate, wanting to gratify the crowd, released Barabbas to them; and he delivered Yeshua, after he had scourged Him, to be crucified. The Soldiers Mock Yeshua Then the soldiers led Him away into the hall called Praetorium, and they called together the whole garrison. And they clothed Him with purple; and they twisted a crown of thorns, put it on His head, and began to salute Him, “Hail, King of the Jews!” Then they struck Him on the head with a reed and spat on Him; and bowing the knee, they worshiped Him. And when they had mocked Him, they took the purple off Him, put His own clothes on Him, and led Him out to crucify Him.

    Luke 23:23-25 But they were insistent, demanding with loud voices that He be crucified. And the voices of these men and of the chief priests prevailed. So Pilate gave sentence that it should be as they requested. And he released to them the one they requested, who for rebellion and murder had been thrown into prison; but he delivered Yeshua to their will.

    John 18:16 Then he delivered Him to them to be crucified. So they took Yeshua and led Him away.

    8:30 – 9:00am He is then given His cross and led away to the site of the Crucifixion, “Golgotha”. Yeshua is given His cross and led away to the site of the Crucifixion. This would have been a slow walk as Yeshua was almost incapacitated from the beatings and could barely walk. He also was saddled with the cross to carry before Simon of Cyrene was forced to carry it. Yeshua also fell three times before arriving at the crucifixion site. The trek would have lasted between fifteen minutes to a half hour depending on the distance and pace.

    Mt 27:31-34 And when they had mocked Him, they took the robe off Him, put His own clothes on Him, and led Him away to be crucified. Now as they came out, they found a man of Cyrene, Simon by name. Him they compelled to bear His cross. And when they had come to a place called Golgotha, that is to say, Place of a Skull, they gave Him sour wine mingled with gall to drink. But when He had tasted it, He would not drink.

    Mark 15:20-23 And when they had mocked Him, they took the purple off Him, put His own clothes on Him, and led Him ot to crucify Him. The King on a Cross Then they compelled a certain man, Simon a Cyrenian, the father of Alexander and Rufus, as he was coming out of the country and passing by, to bear His cross. And they brought Him to the place Golgotha, which is translated, Place of a Skull. Then they gave Him wine mingled with myrrh to drink, but He did not take it.

    Luke 23:26-32 Now as they led Him away, they laid hold of a certain man, Simon a Cyrenian, who was coming from the country, and on him they laid the cross that he might bear it after Yeshua. And a great multitude of the people followed Him, and women who also mourned and lamented Him. But Yeshua, turning to them, said, “Daughters of Jerusalem, do not weep for Me, but weep for yourselves and for your children. “For indeed the days are coming in which they will say, ‘Blessed are the barren, wombs that never bore, and breasts which never nursed!’ “Then they will begin ‘to say to the mountains, “Fall on us!” and to the hills, “Cover us!” “For if they do these things in the green wood, what will be done in the dry?” There were also two others, criminals, led with Him to be put to death.

    John 19:16 Then he delivered Him to them to be crucified. So they took Yeshua and led Him away. And He, bearing His cross, went out to a place called the Place of a Skull, which is called in Hebrew, Golgotha,

    9:00am Yeshua is executed, nailed to the Cross. The final moments before the Crucifixion; not much time was needed to strip Yeshua and nail Him to the cross and hang Him before nailing His feet / ankles to the upright stake. Then as the Gospels describe they gambled for His clothing.

    Mt 27:35Then they crucified Him, and divided His garments, casting lots, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet: “They divided My garments among them, and for My clothing they cast lots.”

    Mark 24-26 And when they crucified Him, they divided His garments, casting lots for them to determine what every man should take. Now it was the third hour, and they crucified Him. And the inscription of His accusation was written above: THE KING OF THE JEWS. And with him they crucify two thieves; the one on his right hand, and the other on his left. And the scripture was fulfilled, which saith, And he was numbered with the transgressors.

    Luke 23:33 And when they had come to the place called Calvary, there they crucified Him, and the criminals, one on the right hand and the other on the left.

    John 19:16-17 And He, bearing His cross, went out to a place called the Place of a Skull, which is called in Hebrew, Golgotha, where they crucified Him, and two others with Him, one on either side, and Yeshua in the center.

  • In conclusion
    To sum it all up with some final thoughts

    These are the events immediately preceding the crucifixion of Jesus.  The timeline presented is in keeping with these points as they are described in the verses which apply.  The timing of events show those present at the trials were only the Sanhedrin, the chief priests, elders and temple guards who followed the trail, events and path of Yeshua as He was led from place to place.  The timing may be off due to travel time from one location to another.  All these events took place in a very short period of time, less than 12 hours from arrest to execution. 

          As discussed previously, the Greek word used for the “multitude” “Okhlos” is referring only to this group and not the population of Jerusalem or Judea at large.  As “okhlos” can mean a “company” or “number of people” or even just a “class” of people, the use in these passages is obviously confined to this particular group of people.

    This dissertation is not concerned with what happened once Jesus was nailed to the Cross.  The points are presented as evidence to show the Jews as a people did not call for the death or execution of Jesus.  It was the Sanhedrin, the Chief Priests and elders; the Pharisee and Sadducee/ leaders; not the people at large. 

           As the events and timing show, the people were not even aware of what was happening.  The mass majority of the people of Jerusalem were still in their homes just getting up when the trial of Jesus was taking place.  By the time the populace at large would have been aware of what was happening, Jesus was already on His way to the site of the Crucifixion. 

           Blaming the Jews as a people is inaccurate, bigoted, ignorant and a reverse application of replacement theology as it replaces our own culpability for the need of His atonement by “washing our hands” of it like Pilate attempted.

      Every person needs to accept responsibility for the Death of Jesus; it is our sinful nature which needed to be atoned for and only the blood of the Sacrificial Lamb of God was pure enough to make such an atonement.  It was not the Jews, it was all of us who killed Jesus, we all drove those nails through His hands and feet.  But in the end He cried to the Father “Forgive them, they know not what they do”.  Thus we are forgiven by His own words.  Thanks be to God and to His Son Jesus Christ for taking upon Himself the punishment we all earned through our sinful lives.